MADE IN ITALY
Made In ITALY
Made in Italy Brands.
Made in Italy is a merchandise mark indicating that a product is all planned, manufactured and packed in Italy, especially concerning the design, fashion, food, manufacturing, craftsmanship, and engineering industries.
Made in Italy brand has been used since 1980 to indicate the international uniqueness of Italy in four traditional industries: fashion, food, furniture and mechanical engineering (automobiles, industrial design, machineries and shipbuilding), in Italian also known as "Four A", Abbigliamento (clothes), Agroalimentare (food), Arredamento (furniture) and Automobili (automobiles).
STYLE OF ITALY.
Italian products have often been associated with quality, high specialization and differentiation, elegance, and strong links to experienced and famous Italian industrial districts often connected with the concept of luxury. Since 1999,
Made in Italy has begun to be protected by associations such as Istituto per la Tutela dei Produttori Italiani (Institute for the Protection of the Italian Manufacturers) and regulated by the Gucci company to the Italian government.
In recent times the merchandise mark Made in Italy has become decisive for Italian exports and so common worldwide to be often considered as a separate product category. In January 2014, Google Cultural Institute, in collaboration with the Italian government and the Italian Chamber of Commerce, launched an online project aimed to promote Made in Italy by using virtual showrooms about several famous Italian products. In 2009, the Italian law (Law 135, September 25th, 2009 - Chamber of Deputies,
Parliament of Italy) stated that only products totally made in Italy (planning, manufacturing and packaging) are allowed to use the labels Made in Italy, 100% Made in Italy, 100% Italia, tutto italiano in every language, with or without the flag of Italy. Each abuse is punished by the Italian law.
Compared with "Made in Germany" ('all essential manufacturing steps') and "Made in the USA" ('all or virtually all'), Italian regulation is more restrictive ('totally') in determining what qualifies for the use of the "Made in Italy" label.
Brands Tod's shop in Hong Kong. Illy espresso machine. Artemide Alistro Lamp designed by Ernesto Gismondi. Ferrari F12 Berlinetta; Ferrari is one of the most well-known brands in the world closely linked to Made in Italy. Jar of Nutella.
Economists and business analysts have identified five companies in particular whose names are closely associated with Made in Italy:
- Barilla - food company; Benetton - global fashion brand;
- Ferrero - manufacturer of chocolate and other confectionery products; Indesit - home appliances; Luxottica - the world's largest eyewear company.
Fashion Agnona A.Caraceni Armani Alberto Fermani Bontoni Bottega Veneta OTHERS:
- Brunello Cucinelli
- Bulgari Calzedoni Canali Cesare Attolini Cesare Paciotti Corneliani Damiani
- Dolce & Gabbana
- E. Marinella Emilio Pucci Fend iFiorucci Franklin & Marshall Gas Jeans
- Harmont & Blaine
- Intimissimi Julie&MotH Kiton Le Village Sneakers Liverano & Liverano Loro Piana
- Max Mara Misson iMiu Miu Moncler Moschino
- Officine Panerai Pal Zileri Perso lPeg-Perego Piquadro
- Prada Rifle Roberto Botticelli Roberto Cavalli Rubinacci
- Safilo Salvatore Ferragamo
- Tod's Trussardi Valentino Versac eZegna
- Carapelli Cirio
- Coppola Foods De Cecco Divella Eataly
- Ferrari Trento F.lli Gancia
- Giovanni Rana Granarolo
- La Molisana Lavazza Lazzaroni Loacker
- Martini & Rossi Massimo Zanetti
- Parmacotto Parmalat
- Perfetti Van Melle
- Saclà Italia
- San Carlo San Pellegrino Vicenzi Voiello
Furniture / home appliances
- Alivar Arketipo Artemid eB&B Italia Bonaldo Brionvega Bticino
- Candy Casamania Casabath Cassina Cattelan Italia Cucine Lube
- De'Longhi Fiam Flos Flou Foppa Pedretti Foscarini
- Gallotti & Radice Gentry Home
- Indesit Company Jacuzzi Kartell Kristalia Lago Linea Italia Miniforms Moroso
- Pedrali Poltrona Frau Prandina Saba Scavolini Smeg
- Tacchini Tonell iTonin Casa Zanussi Valdama
- Alfa Romeo
- Aprilia Atala Axis Group Yacht Design
- Azimut Yachts Benelli Armi SpA Benelli
- Bianchi Bicycles
- Bravo Brembo
- niche Giovanni Cerutti
- PFM Group
- Piaggio Pininfarina
- Riva Yacht sSilca S.p.A.
- VM Motor iZagato
From Wikipedia, the free Encyclopedia
MADE IN ITALY: INDIA
Country of Origin COC
"Swiss Made" label on a TAG Heuer chronograph.
Country of origin label for a product designed in the United States, but manufactured in China.
Country of origin (COO), is the country of manufacture, production, or growth where an article or product comes from. There are differing rules of origin under various national laws and international treaties. Country of origin labelling is also known as place-based branding, the made-in image or the "nationality bias." In some regions or industries, country of origin labelling may adopt unique local terms such as terroir used to describe wine appellations based on the specific region where grapes are grown and wine manufactured. Place-based branding has a very ancient history.
Archaeological evidence points to packaging specifying the place of manufacture dating back to some 4,000 years ago. Over time, informal labels evolved into formal, often regulated labels providing consumers with information about product quality, manufacturer name and place of origin.
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Privacy Concerns Privacy of personal information is a significant issue for some consumers. Many consumers wish to avoid spam and telemarketing which could result from supplying contact information to an online merchant. In response, many merchants promise to not use consumer information for these purposes, Many websites keep track of consumer shopping habits in order to suggest items and other websites to view. Brick-and-mortar stores also collect consumer information. consumers’ credit cards (often without their knowledge) to add them to a catalog mailing list. This information is obviously not accessible to the merchant when paying in cash or through a bank (money transfer, in which case there is also proof of payment). Many successful purely virtual companies deal with digital products, (including information storage, retrieval, and modification), music, movies, office supplies, education, communication, software, photography, and financial transactions. Other successful marketers use drop shipping or affiliate marketing techniques to facilitate transactions of tangible goods without maintaining real inventory. Some non-digital products have been more successful than others for online stores. Profitable items often have a high value-to-weight ratio, they may involve embarrassing purchases, they may typically go to people in remote locations, and they may have shut-ins as their typical purchasers. Items which can fit in a standard mailbox—such as music CDs, DVDs and books—are particularly suitable for a virtual marketer. Products such as spare parts, both for consumer items like washing machines and for industrial equipment like centrifugal pumps, also seem good candidates for selling online. Retailers often need to order spare parts specially, since they typically do not stock them at consumer outlets—in such cases, e-commerce solutions in spares do not compete with retail stores, only with other ordering systems. A factor for success in this niche can consist of providing customers with exact, reliable information about which part number their particular version of a product needs, for example by providing parts lists keyed by serial number. Products less suitable for e-commerce include products that have a low value-to-weight ratio, products that have a smell, taste, or touch component, products that need trial fittings—most notably clothing—and products where colour integrity appears important. Nonetheless, some web sites have had success delivering groceries and clothing sold through the internet is big business in the U.S. Aggregation(s)
High-volume websites, such as Yahoo!, Amazon.com, and eBay, offer hosting services for online stores to all size retailers. These stores are presented within an integrated navigation framework, sometimes known as virtual shopping malls or online marketplaces. Impact of reviews on consumer behavior Important: One of the great benefits of online shopping is the ability to read product reviews, written either by experts or fellow online shopper. XXX______________ Online Shopping Rewards From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Online shopping rewards are a type of loyalty program to e-commerce shoppers. The advent of online shopping has resulted in the rapid
development of a large number of rewards programs that offer incentives for shopping. These programs may be points-based (redeemable for products or vouchers), cashback, airline frequent flyer-miles-based, hotel points, donations to charity, or even carbon offsets. These programs are often presented to the consumer as coalitions of large numbers of retailers, but are probably better described as competitive loyalty programs, to differentiate them from their precursors the original single retailer non-competitive loyalty program.
The Marketing Model Rewards portals have grown very rapidly in most major markets, especially in the US, Canada, UK, and Australia. While they have roots in traditional off-line non-competitive loyalty programs, such portals often add considerably greater value to the customer than their traditional off-line equivalent, which accounts for their dramatic growth and high levels of customer acceptance. Cash back and reward-based websites operate using a marketing model known as affiliate marketing, which is a performance-based marketing tool.
Affiliate marketing networks make it possible to track in detail where users come from (which website is referring the customers), what users buy (down to the product) and when. Rewards-based websites track and reconcile this information with their own user database, and pass on a proportion or even all of the commission received to the customer. From the customer’s perspective they are getting something back, usually at no extra cost and often with an additional discount or bonus. T
traditional programs focus their proposition on extrinsic motivation and rewards: cash back or a choice of attractive rewards. A variant, though not unique to online shopping programs, is the intrinsic reward. Cause related websites, much like affinity credit card schemes, give their users the opportunity to donate the cash or points to a charity, school, or club. Others still give their users a range of options.
With consumer concern https://patelshopping.com/ about climate change growing, a number of green rewards shopping portals have appeared. Instead of cash back or points these websites offer carbon credits (also known as carbon offsets) or green gadgets to encourage consumers to shop with particular retailers or make changes to their lifestyle. Points-based web sites may have different currencies, which makes it difficult to compare the customer benefit. Most reward websites retain a proportion of the commission, and only industry insiders are aware of the nuances of the business model used and therefore the customer benefit. From the consumer’s perspective it may not always be clear whether the benefit going to the supported cause is the most effective way of raising funds. For example, in some countries like the UK, a significant tax benefit can be provided to the charity by donating in cash. While the majority of green reward websites also offer some useful information and advice on greener living, few of them seem to encourage more sustainable consumption.
Loyalty Programs From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Various loyalty cards or Loyalty Programs are structured marketing strategies designed by merchants to encourage customers to continue to shop at or use the services of businesses associated with each program.
These programs exist covering most types of commerce, each one having varying features and rewards-schemes. In marketing generally, and in banking, entertainment, hospitality, retailing, and travel more specifically, a loyalty card, rewards card, points card, advantage card, club card is a plastic or paper card, visually similar to a credit card, debit card, or digital card that identifies the card holder as a participant in a loyalty program. Loyalty cards (both physical and digital) relate to the loyalty business-model. call a two-part tariff. Application forms for cards usually entail agreements by the store concerning customer privacy, typically non-disclosure (by the store) of non-aggregate data about customers. the loyalty card may also be used to access such information to expedite verification during receipt of cheques or dispensing medical prescription preparations, or for other membership privileges such as access to an airport lounge using a frequent-flyer card. In recent years, businesses now offer these loyalty cards in the form of a loyalty app, which means users are less likely to lose their card. Almost all major casino chains also have loyalty cards, which offer members tier credits, reward credits, comps, and other perks based on card members’ “theo” from gambling, various demographic data, and spend patterns on various purchases at the casino, within the casino network, and with the casino’s partners. Examples of such programs include Caesars Rewards (formerly called Total Rewards) and MGM Resorts International’s Mlife. Loyalty programs have been described as a form of centralized virtual currency, one with They include Octopus Rewards, operated by Octopus Cards Limited, which allows Octopus card users to earn points in certain shops, including McDonald’s fast food outlets and Wellcome s loyalty program, such as A.S. Watson Group’s Money Back, which can be used at Parknshop, Watsons, and Fortress stores, as well as the corporation’s retail partners.
India PAYBACK India is India’s largest coalition loyalty program,
with over 50 million members, over 50 partners and 3000 network partner outlets. German loyalty program operator Loyalty Partner took a controlling interest in i-mint in June 2010 and renamed the program PAYBACK India in July 2011. BPCL’s PetroBonus fuel card program has 2 million members. Indian Oil’s fleet card program XTRAPOWER and retail program XTRAREWARDS claim a combined customer base of 3 million. Iran The first Iranian loyalty program launched.
In 1996 by Iran Credit Card Group Zarrin Card. East Credit Card Group Kish launched its loyalty program in 2005. Malaysia Genting Highlands Resort has a loyalty card, WorldCard, that is primarily used to gain points in Genting Highlands’ Resorts and Attractions. However, it can also be used for Starbucks, Coffee Bean and Häagen-Dazs and it is valid in three countries: Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong. Loyalty program can also build in term of app version, which widely use in Starbucks app, TK Bakery App, Loudspeaker App, AppPay. Philippines In the Philippines, several brands of establishments and stores offer membership cards that the card owner can use to earn points and redeem rewards. The gigantic shopping mall chain, SM Supermalls offers the SM Advantage Card or SMAC that can be used as a loyalty card that earns points as you shop and its partner bank, BDO Unibank also offers BDO Rewards Card that functions the same as the SM Advantage Card. Retailers accepting the card include: The SM Store, SM Supermarket, SM Hypermarket,
ACE Hardware and Watsons Pharmacy. Another mall chain, Robinsons Malls has a program named Robinsons Rewards. It can also be used when shopping in Robinsons Department Stores, Robinsons Supermarkets, and Toys “R” Us branches in the Philippines. Jollibee, the fast food giant and its subsidiaries (Chowking, Greenwich Pizza, and Red Ribbon launched the HappyPlus card, in which the cardholder can use the card to earn happy points and use the points to get a free food. It is also planned to be used in Mang Inasal, the most recent member of the Jollibee Foods Corporation. or cumulative purchases. Singapore In Singapore, the three largest loyalty programs are Plus!, WorldCard and SAFRA Card. The Plus! LinkPoints Programme has more than 1 million members and over 600 participating merchant outlets. Europe Finland Loyalty programs are very popular in Finland.
80% of people are in at least one loyalty program and over 50% are member of at least two programs. Two major coalitions with loyaly programs operating in multiple business sectors. These are S-Group with S-Etukortti (70% of population, 2014]) and Kesko with K-Plussa (67%).
These cards can be equipped with Visa or MasterCard Debit / Credit payment features. Both loyalty programs are being aggressively pushed to consumers. New major player in Finnish and Baltic markets is Pins(19%). In Georgia the biggest loyalty card program is run by Universal Card Corporation since 2010. Universal scheme unifies more than 250 companies where customers collect bonus points on UNICARD while purchasing food, goods, garments/clothing, fuel, travel packages, tickets, pharmacy, or into desirable gifts presented within UNICARD’s online catalogue. Germany The largest loyalty program in Germany is Payback, which was launched in 2000. According to a study in August 2007 by GfK, 61% of German households have a Payback card. It listed the HappyDigits [de] program as having a 42% share, with the Shell ClubSmart program as third most popular with 13%. In March 2008, the coalition program DeutschlandCard [de]
was launched by Arvato. As at March 2009 it had more than 4.5 million active cardholders. HappyDigits was disbanded at the latest of the year 2009/2010. Two coalition loyalty programs in Hungary are SuperShop and Multipoint. SuperShop, established in April 2000, is backed by partners SuperShop Spar, OBI, OMV, Photo hall, Burger King. Italy After the exit of Nectar from the market in 2015, Payback is the most popular coalition loyalty program with more than 10 million card holders and relevant anchor partners such as Carrefour, Esso, H3G (Tre), Mediaset Premium, BNL BNP Paribas and more than 60 online partners. Supermarket chains Esselunga, Coop and Il Gigante also have well established loyalty programs. Other stores such as Interio, a furniture retailer, are also joining the market with loyalty cards and store-based incentivised credit cards. Loyalty programs are also widely spread in the consumer goods Ihas been the:
2008 Lavazza Carmencita digital collection followed by many other brands such as Barilla, Casa Modena-Giravolte and Tena Lady of the Multinational Sca Hygiene Products. Latvia One of the largest loyalty programs in Latvia which is working as operator for many merchants is Pins. Walmoo is a loyalty platform that was launched in 2013 that allows their users to create their own loyalty program. In the Republic of Ireland loyalty cards have been in operation since 1993, when Superquinn introduced its SuperClub loyalty card scheme. This is regarded as having been the prototype for such schemes in Europe. However, loyalty cards did not expand until 1997, when Tesco Ireland introduced its Clubcard scheme, shortly after its purchase of Power Supermarkets.today these are three main schemes operating in Ireland, although ValueClub has been withdrawn from Dunnes’ Northern Ireland stores. SuperValu has introduced their own loyalty club called Real Rewards. All five major petrol station chains in the country operated a scheme during the late 1990s—Esso had Tiger Miles (with Tesco ClubCard points offered as an alternative), Maxol had Points Plus
,Statoiloperating a cash-back system, Premium Club. Due to increasing oil prices and tightening of margins, these schemes ended by the end of 2005. Tesco Ireland’s petrol stations still, however, give Clubcard points. Rewards From Us To You is a hotel loyalty program for independent hotels in Belgium, Holland, Ireland & the United Kingdom.
It was founded in November 2011 by parent hotel management company PREM Group, who is based in Dublin, Ireland. This program does not issue loyalty cards but does everything electronically through email. This company has over 33 participating hotels and serviced apartments. Guests earn points every time they stay with any hotel in the club. Guests can later redeem free night Switzerland Loyalty programs are popular in Switzerland, with the two main supermarket chains, Migros and Coop prominent. The M-Cumulus card can be used at the Migros supermarkets, Ex Libris, SportXX, and other retailers. The Coop Supercard earns points on purchases at Coop and a variety of other associated stores. Other stores such as Interio, a furniture retailer, are also joining the market with loyalty cards and store-based incentivised credit cards. The only coalition loyalty scheme in Switzerland is Bonus Card with a network of over 300 independent retail partners. In recent years, online loyalty programs have also started to target the Swiss. First to make an offering in Switzerland was German-based Webmiles. Claiming to be :
Switzerland’s first online bonus program, Bonuspoints was launched in early 2008 and offers incentives for shopping at 70 different online stores. Another Russian loyalty program is Mnogo.ru. This project is fully independent. Members of the club who own clubcards can gain points in exchange for daily purchases made both online and offline at partners’ shops. A customer receives points while answering the quiz, playing games and getting special offers. Cumulative points can be exchanged for prizes from the company’s partners. Spain Voilà Hotel Rewards was launched in June 2008 with Husa Plus, a co-branded loyalty program for Husa Hoteles. y a major chain is believed to be the Sainsbury’s Homebase Spend and Save Card in 1982. Of the “big four” supermarkets, Sainsburys and Tesco and Morrisons operate loyalty cards for general supermarket shopping
.T esco’s Clubcard scheme have been criticised for not offering value for money. When Clubcard or Nectar points are used for money off supermarket shopping, they roughly equate to a 0.5% discount, although offers can increase this discount by as much as four times for certain rewards. Some retailers with banking operations also award points for every pound spent on their credit cards, and bonus points for purchasing financial services. After trials in 1994, Tesco launched its Clubcard program, the UK’s first nationwide supermarket-only loyalty card scheme, in 1995 with dunnhumby. Sainsbury’s launched its Reward Card in 1996. This was replaced by the Nectar card in 2002, which was launched in partnership with other major brands. Boots UK began planning a loyalty card in November 1993, but building a CRM-focussed loyalty program. With an investment in excess of GB£30 million, the Boots Advantage Card, launched in 1997, is the largest smart card retail loyalty card scheme in the world, and the third-largest retail loyalty scheme in the UK in terms of cards issued. The Advantage scheme has 16.4 million cardholders using the card online and in store and at 3rd party retailers.extra points for specific purchases, or money off or extra points when spending has reached an amount specified on the voucher, or other offers such as double points on either everything of specific products. For example, a customer may get a voucher which provides 250 extra points when they have spent £50 in one transaction. Points equal pence in store, and can be spent at any time and on anything in store, providing the card has enough points to cover the entire cost of the merchandise. The kiosk system was replaced with the Boots App in 2014, where customers can automatically load offers on to their Advantage Card straight from their smartphone. Safeway’s ABC Card was discontinued in 2000. Airlines, Hotels and other loyalty schemes also offer cards. Marks and Spencer and the John Lewis Partnership have credit cards John Lewis Partnership and the Sparks Card in by Marks and Spencer.
Ferrari is the world's most powerful brand according to Brand Finance. A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising.
Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands.
Branding was used to differentiate one person's cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal's skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that "brand" now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine, cosmetics and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colours at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
The word ‘brand’ is often used as a metonym referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity.
The word, brand, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood. That word comes from the Old High German, brinnan and Old English byrnan, biernan, and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond.
In pre-literate society, the distinctive shape of amphorae provided potential consumers with information about goods and quality. Pictured: Amphorae for wine and oil, Archaeological Museum, Dion.
Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding probably began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, and could serve as a guide to quality.
Branding was adapted by farmers, potters and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics. Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa, Asia and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE); large numbers of seals survive from the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley (3,300–1,300 BCE) where the local community depended heavily on trade; cylinder seals came into use in Ur in Mesopotamia in around 3,000 BCE and facilitated the labelling of goods and property; and the use of maker's marks on pottery was commonplace in both ancient Greece and Rome.
Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection, utility and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions". She has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between
1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a largely pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of origin and even the identity of the producer, which were understood to convey information about product quality. David Wengrow has argued that branding became necessary following the urban revolution in ancient Mesopotamia in the 4th century BCE, when large-scale economies started mass-producing commodities such as alcoholic drinks, cosmetics and textiles. These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality-control over commodities, and also needed to convey value to the consumer through branding. Producers began by attaching simple stone seals to products which, over time, gave way to clay seals bearing impressed images, often associated with the producer's personal identity thus giving the product a personality. Not all historians agree that these markings are comparable with modern brands or labels, with some suggesting that the early pictorial brands or simple thumbprints used in pottery should be termed proto-brands while other historians argue that the presence of these simple markings does not imply that mature brand management practices operated
Some of the earliest use of maker's marks, dating to about 1,300 BCE, have been found in India. The oldest generic brand in continuous use, known in India since the Vedic period (ca. 1,100 BCE to 500 BCE), is the herbal paste known as Chyawanprash, consumed for its purported health benefits and attributed to a revered rishi (or seer) named Chyawan. One well-documented early example of a highly developed brand is that of White Rabbit sewing needles, dating from China's Song Dynasty (960 to 1127 CE).
A copper printing-plate used to print posters contained a message which roughly translates as: “Jinan Liu’s Fine Needle Shop: We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time.” The plate also includes a trademark in the form of a 'White Rabbit", which signified good luck and was particularly relevant to women, who were the primary purchasers. Details in the image show a white rabbit crushing herbs, and text includes advice to shoppers to look for the stone white rabbit in front of the maker's shop.
One merchant who made good use of the titulus pictus was Umbricius Scaurus, a manufacturer of fish sauce (also known as garum) in Pompeii, circa 35 CE. Mosaic patterns in the atrium of his house feature images of amphorae bearing his personal brand and quality claims. The mosaic depicts four different amphora, one at each corner of the atrium, and bearing labels as follows:
The use of identity marks on products declined following the fall of the Roman Empire. However, in the European Middle Ages, heraldry developed a language of visual symbolism which would feed into the evolution of branding, and with the rise of the merchant's guilds the use of marks resurfaced and was applied to specific types of goods. Blind stamps, hallmarks, and silver-makers' marks – all types of brand – became widely used across Europe during this period. Hallmarks, although known from the 4th-century, especially in Byzantium, only came into general use during the Medieval period. British silversmiths introduced hallmarks for silver in 1300.
Some brands still in existence as of 2018 date from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries' period of mass-production. Bass & Company, the British brewery founded in 1777, became a pioneer in international brand marketing. Many years before 1855 Bass applied a red triangle to casks of its Pale Ale. In 1876 its red-triangle brand became the first registered trademark issued by the British government. Guinness World Records recognizes Tate & Lyle (of Lyle's Golden Syrup) as Britain's, and the world's, oldest branding and packaging, with its green-and-gold packaging having remained almost unchanged since 1885. Twinings Tea has used the same logo — capitalized font beneath a lion crest — since 1787, making it the world's oldest in continuous use.
A characteristic feature of 19th-century mass-marketing was the widespread use of branding, originating with the advent of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items, such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When shipping their items, the factories would literally brand their logo or company insignia on the barrels used, effectively using a corporate trademark as a quasi-brand.. Packaged-goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public could place just as much trust in the non-local product. Gradually, manufacturers began using personal identifiers to differentiate their goods from generic products on the market. Marketers generally began to realise that brands, to which personalities were attached, outsold rival brands. a retailer's recommendation.
The process of giving a brand "human" characteristics represented, at least in part, a response to consumer concerns about mass-produced goods. The Quaker Oats Company began using the image of the Quaker man in place of a trademark from the late 1870s, with great success. Pears' soap, Campbell's soup, Coca-Cola, Juicy Fruit chewing gum and Aunt Jemima pancake mix were also among the first products to be "branded" in an effort to increase the consumer's familiarity with the product's merits. Other brands which date from that era, such as Uncle Ben's rice and Kellogg's breakfast cereal, furnish illustrations of the trend.
By the early 1900s, trade-press publications, advertising agencies and advertising experts began producing books and pamphlets exhorting manufacturers to bypass retailers and to advertise direct to consumers with strongly branded messages. and as of 2018 is quantified in concepts such as brand value and brand equity. Naomi Klein has described this development as "brand equity mania". In 1988, for example
, Philip Morris purchased Kraft for six times what the company was worth on paper. Business analysts reported that what they really purchased was the brand name.
With the rise of mass media in the early 20th century, companies soon adopted techniques that would allow their messages to stand out; slogans, mascots, and jingles began to appear on radio in the 1920s and in early television broadcasting in the 1930s. Soap manufacturers sponsored many of the earliest radio-drama series, and the genre became known as soap opera.
By the 1940s manufacturers began to recognize the way in which consumers had started to develop relationships with their brands in a social/psychological/anthropological sense. Advertisers began to use motivational research and consumer research to gather insights into consumer purchasing. Strong branded campaigns for Chrysler and Exxon/Esso, using insights drawn from research into psychology and cultural anthropology, led to some of most enduring campaigns of the 20th-century. Brand advertisers began to imbue goods and services with a personality, based on the insight that consumers searched for brands with personalities that matched their own.
Effective branding can result in higher sales of not only one product, but of other products associated with that brand. If a customer loves Pillsbury biscuits and trusts the brand, he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the company – such as chocolate-chip cookies, for example. Brand development, often the task of a design team, takes time to produce.
Coca-Cola is a brand name, while the distinctive Spencerian script and the contour bottle are trademarked
A brand name is the part of a brand that can be spoken or written and identifies a product, service or company and sets it apart from other comparable products within a category. A brand name may include words, phrases, signs, symbols, designs, or any combination of these elements. For consumers, a brand name is a "memory heuristic"; a convenient way to remember preferred product choices. A brand name is not to be confused with a trademark which refers to the brand name or part of a brand that is legally protected. For example, Coca-Cola not only protects the brand name, Coca-Cola, but also protects the distinctive Spencerian script and the contoured shape of the bottle.
Brand personality refers to “the set of human personality traits that are both applicable to and relevant for brands.” Marketers and consumer researchers often argue that brands can be imbued with human-like characteristics which resonate with potential consumers. Such personality traits can assist marketers to create unique, brands that are differentiated from rival brands. Aaker conceptualised brand personality as consisting of five broad dimensions, namely: sincerity (down-to-earth, honest, wholesome, and cheerful), excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, and up to date), competence (reliable, intelligent, and successful), sophistication (glamorous, upper class, charming), and ruggedness (outdoorsy and tough). Subsequent research studies have suggested that Aaker's dimensions of brand personality are relatively stable across different industries, market segments and over time. Much of the literature on branding suggests that consumers prefer brands with personalities that are congruent with their own.
Consumers may distinguish the psychological aspect (brand associations like thoughts, feelings,
perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand) of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is termed the consumer's brand experience.
The brand is often intended to create an emotional response and recognition, leading to potential loyalty and repeat purchases. The brand experience is a brand's action perceived by a person. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construct created within the minds of people, consisting of all the information and expectations associated with a product, with a service, or with the companies providing them.
Marketers or product managers responsible for branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience, creating the impression that a brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities or characteristics that make it special or unique. A brand can therefore become one of the most valuable elements in an advertising theme, as it demonstrates what the brand owner is able to offer in the marketplace.
The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. Orientation of an entire organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. Brand orientation develops in response to market intelligence.
Careful brand management seeks to make products or services relevant and meaningful to a target audience. Marketers tend to treat brands as more than the difference between the actual cost of a product and its selling price; rather brands represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer and are often treated as the total investment in brand building activities including marketing communications.
Brand awareness In the modern era, the concept of branding has expanded to include the marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand's identity, brand communication (such as by logos and trademarks), brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding (brand management) strategies
Many companies believe that there is often little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, and therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation.
Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components. As markets become increasingly dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits. When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity.
Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is often the most valuable asset on a corporation's balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands carefully to create shareholder value, and brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, and allows marketing investment to be managed (e.g.: prioritized across a portfolio of brands) to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value.
The word ‘brand’ is often used as a metonym referring to the company that is strongly identified with a brand. Marque or make are often used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand that is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business. A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity.
Brand awareness involves a customers' ability to recall and/or recognize brands, logos and branded advertising. Brands helps customers to understand which brands or products belong to which product or service category. Brands assist customers to understand the constellation of benefits offered by individual brands, and how a given brand within a category is differentiated from its competing brands, and thus the brand helps customers & potential customers understand which brand satisfies their needs. Thus, the brand offers the customer a short-cut to understanding the different product or service offerings that make up a particular category.
Brand awareness is a key step in the customer's purchase decision process, since some kind of awareness is a precondition to purchasing. That is, customers will not consider a brand if they are not aware of it. Brand awareness is a key component in understanding the effectiveness both of a brand's identity and of its communication methods.
Successful brands are those that consistently generate a high level of brand awareness, as this can often be the pivotal factor in securing customer transactions. Various forms of brand awareness can be identified. Each form reflects a different stage in a customer's cognitive ability to address the brand in a given circumstance.
Marketers typically identify two distinct types of brand awareness; namely brand recall (also known as unaided recall or occasionally spontaneous recall) and brand recognition (also known as aided brand recall). These types of awareness operate in entirely different ways with important implications for marketing strategy and advertising.
- Most companies aim for "Top-of-Mind" which occurs when a brand pops into a consumer's mind when asked to name brands in a product category. For example, when someone is asked to name a type of facial tissue, the common answer, "Kleenex", will represent a top-of-mind brand. Top-of-mind awareness is a special case of brand recall.
- Brand recall (also known as unaided brand awareness or spontaneous awareness) refers to the brand or set of brands that a consumer can elicit from memory when prompted with a product category
- Brand recognition (also known as aided brand awareness) occurs when consumers see or read a list of brands, and express familiarity with a particular brand only after they hear or see it as a type of memory aide.
- Strategic awareness occurs when a brand is not only top-of-mind to consumers, but also has distinctive qualities which consumers perceive as making it better than other brands in the particular market. The distinction(s) that set a product apart from the competition is/are also known as the unique selling point or USP.
Simply, the brand identity is a set of individual components, such as a name, a design, a set of images, a slogan, a vision, a design, writing style, a particular font or a symbol etc. which sets the brand aside from others. In order for a company to exude a strong sense of brand identity, it must have an in-depth understanding of its target market, competitors and the surrounding business environment. Brand identity includes both the core identity and the extended identity. The core identity reflects consistent long-term associations with the brand; whereas the extended identity involves the intricate details of the brand that help generate a constant motif.
A brand's attributes are a set of labels with which the corporation wishes to be associated. For example, a brand may showcase its primary attribute as environmental friendliness. However, a brand's attributes alone are not enough to persuade a customer into purchasing the product. These attributes must be communicated through benefits, which are more emotional translations. If a brand's attribute is being environmentally friendly, customers will receive the benefit of feeling that they are helping the environment by associating with the brand. Aside from attributes and benefits, a brand's identity may also involve branding to focus on representing its core set of values. If a company is seen to symbolise specific values, it will, in turn, attract customers who also believe in these values. For example, Nike's brand represents the value of a "just do it" attitude. Thus, this form of brand identification attracts customers who also share this same value. Even more extensive than its perceived values is a brand's personality. Quite literally, one can easily describe a successful brand identity as if it were a person. This form of brand identity has proven to be the most advantageous in maintaining long-lasting relationships with consumers, as it gives them a sense of personal interaction with the brand Collectively, all four forms of brand identification help to deliver a powerful meaning behind what a corporation hopes to accomplish, and to explain why customers should choose one brand over its competitors.
is one of the initial phases of brand awareness and validates whether or not a customer remembers being pre-exposed to the brand. Brand recognition (also known as aided brand recall) refers to consumers' ability to correctly differentiate a brand when they come into contact with it. This does not necessarily require that the consumers identify or recall the brand name. When customers experience brand recognition, they are triggered by either a visual or verbal cue. For example, when looking to satisfy a category need such as toilet paper, the customer would firstly be presented with multiple brands to choose from. Once the customer is visually or verbally faced with a brand, he/she may remember being introduced to the brand before. When given some type of cue, consumers who are able to retrieve the particular memory node that referred to the brand, they exhibit brand recognition.
Often, this form of brand awareness assists customers in choosing one brand over another when faced with a low-involvement purchasing decision.
Brand recognition is often the mode of brand awareness that operates in retail shopping environments. When presented with a product at the point-of-sale, or after viewing its visual packaging, consumers are able to recognize the brand and may be able to associate it with attributes or meanings acquired through exposure to promotion or word-of-mouth referrals. In contrast to brand recall, where few consumers are able to spontaneously recall brand names within a given category, when prompted with a brand name, a larger number of consumers are typically able to recognize it.
Brand recognition is most successful when people can elicit recognition without being explicitly exposed to the company's name, but rather through visual signifiers like logos, slogans, and colors. For example, Disney successfully branded its particular script font (originally created for Walt Disney's "signature" logo), which it used in the logo for go.com.
Unlike brand recognition, brand recall (also known as unaided brand recall or spontaneous brand recall) is the ability of the customer retrieving the brand correctly from memory. Rather than being given a choice of multiple brands to satisfy a need, consumers are faced with a need first, and then must recall a brand from their memory to satisfy that need. This level of brand awareness is stronger than brand recognition, as the brand must be firmly cemented in the consumer's memory to enable unassisted remembrance. This gives the company huge advantage over its competitors because the customer is already willing to buy or at least know the company offering available in the market. Thus, brand recall is a confirmation that previous branding touchpoints have successfully fermented in the minds of its consumers.
Marketing-mix modeling can help marketing leaders optimize how they spend marketing budgets to maximize the impact on brand awareness or on sales. Managing brands for value creation will often involve applying marketing-mix modeling techniques in conjunction with brand valuation.
Brand elements Brands typically comprise various elements, such as:
- name: the word or words used to identify a company, product, service, or concept
- logo: the visual trademark that identifies a brand
- tagline or catchphrase: "The Quicker Picker Upper" is associated with Bounty paper towels
- graphics: the "dynamic ribbon" is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola's brand
- shapes: the distinctive shapes of the Coca-Cola bottle and of the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands
- colors: the instant recognition consumers have when they see Tiffany & Co.’s robin's egg blue (Pantone No. 1837). Tiffany & Co.’s trademarked the color in 1998.
- sounds: a unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand. NBC's chimes provide a famous example.
Brand communication Further information: Advertising management, Integrated marketing communications, Marketing communications, and Promotion (marketing)
Although brand identity is a fundamental asset to a brand's equity, the worth of a brand's identity would become obsolete without ongoing brand communication. Integrated marketing communications (IMC) relates to how a brand transmits a clear consistent message to its stakeholders . Five key components comprise IMC advertising sales promotions direct marketing personal selling public relations.
The effectiveness of a brand's communication is determined by how accurately the customer perceives the brand's intended message through its IMC. Although IMC is a broad strategic concept, the most crucial brand communication elements are pinpointed to how the brand sends a message and what touch points the brand uses to connect with its customers.
One can analyse the traditional communication model into several consecutive steps:
- Firstly, a source/sender wishes to convey a message to a receiver. This source must encode the intended message in a way that the receiver will potentially understand.
- After the encoding stage, the forming of the message is complete and is portrayed through a selected channel. In IMC, channels may include media elements such as advertising, public relations, sales promotions, etc. It is at this point where the message can often deter from its original purpose as the message must go through the process of being decoded, which can often lead to unintended misinterpretation. Finally, the receiver retrieves the message and attempts to understand what the sender was aiming to render. Often, a message may be incorrectly received due to noise in the market, which is caused by
- The final stage of this process is when the receiver responds to the message, which is received by the original sender as feedback.
When a brand communicates a brand identity to a receiver, it runs the risk of the receiver incorrectly interpreting the message. Therefore, a brand should use appropriate communication channels to positively "…affect how the psychological and physical aspects of a brand are perceived".
In order for brands to effectively
communicate to customers, marketers must "…consider all touch point|s, or sources of contact, that a customer has with the brand". Touch points represent the channel stage in the traditional communication model, where a message travels from the sender to the receiver. points to activate customer emotion. For example, if a brand consistently uses a pleasant smell as a primary touch point, the brand has a much higher chance of creating a positive lasting effect on its customers' senses as well as memory. Another way a brand can ensure that it is utilizing the best communication channel is by focusing on touch points that suit particular areas associated with customer experience. As suggested Figure 2, certain touch points link with a specific stage in customer-brand-involvement. For example, a brand may recognize that advertising touch points are most effective during the pre-purchase experience stage therefore they may target their advertisements.
Brand communication is important in ensuring brand success in the business world and refers to how businesses transmit their brand messages, characteristics and attributes to their consumers. One method of brand communication which companies can exploit involves electronic word-of mouth (eWOM). EWoM is a relatively new
to communicate with consumers. One popular method of eWOM involves social networking sites (SNSs) such as Twitter. A study found that consumers classed their relationship with a brand as closer if that brand was active on a specific social media site (Twitter). Research further found that the more consumers "retweeted" and communicated with a brand, the more they trusted the brand. This suggests that a company could look to employ a social-media campaign to gain consumer trust and loyalty as well as in the pursuit of communicating brand messages. In 2012 Riefler stated that if the company communicating a brand is a global organisation or has future global aims, that company should look to employ a method of communication which is globally appealing to their consumers, and subsequently choose a method of communication with will be internationally understood.
Therefore, when looking to communicate a brand with chosen consumers, companies should investigate a channel of communication which is most suitable for their short-term and long-term aims and should choose a method of communication which is most likely to be adhered to by their chosen consumers.
Global brand ITEMS TO CONSIDER
The term "brand name" is quite often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to specifically denote written or spoken linguistic elements of any product. In this context a "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark, if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of products or services. A brand owner may seek to protect proprietary rights in relation to a brand name through trademark registration – such trademarks are called "Registered Trademarks". Advertising spokespersons have also become part of some brands, for example: Mr. Whipple of Charmin toilet tissue and Tony the Tiger of Kellogg's Frosted Flakes. Putting a value on a brand by brand valuation or using marketing mix modeling techniques is distinct to valuing a trademark.
Types of brand names
Brand names come in many styles. A few include:
- initialism: a name made of initials, such as "UPS" or "IBM"
- descriptive: names that describe a product benefit or function, such as "Whole Foods" or "Toys R' Us"
- that can evoke a vivid image, such as "Amazon" or "Crest"
- completely made-up words, such as "Wii" or "Häagen-Dazs"
- founders' names: using the names of real people, (especially a founder's surname), such as "Hewlett-Packard", "Dell", "Disney", "Stussy" or "Mars"
- geography: naming for regions and landmarks, such as "Cisco" or "Fuji Film"
- personification: taking names from myths, such as "Nike"; or from the minds of ad execs, such as "Betty Crocker"
- multiple words together to create one, such as "Microsoft" ("microcomputer" and "software"), "Comcast" ("communications" and "broadcast"), "Evernote" ("forever" and "note"), "Vodafone" ("voice", "data", "telephone")
The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some kind of brand identity, from common table salt to designer jeans. A brandnomer is a brand name that has colloquially become a generic term for a product or service, such as Band-Aid, Nylon, or Kleenex—which are often used to describe any brand of adhesive bandage; any type of hosiery; or any brand of facial tissue respectively. Xerox, for example, has become synonymous with the word "copy".
Brand line A brand line allows the introduction of various subtypes of a product under a common, ideally already established, brand name. Examples would be the individual Kinder Chocolates by Ferrero SA, the subtypes of Coca-Cola, or special editions of popular brands. See also brand extension.
Open Knowledge Foundation created in December 2013 the BSIN (Brand Standard Identification Number). BSIN is universal and is used by the Open Product Data Working Group  of the Open Knowledge Foundation to assign a brand to a product. The OKFN Brand repository is critical for the Open Data movement.
Brand identity Corporate identity
The expression of a brand – including its name, trademark, communications, and visual appearance – is brand identity. Because the identity is assembled by the brand owner, it reflects how the owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand – and by extension the branded company, organization, product or service. This is in contrast to the brand image, which is a customer's mental picture of a brand. The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between the brand image and the brand identity. Brand identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brand's differentiation from competitors.
Brand identity is what the owner wants to communicate to its potential consumers. However, over time, a product's brand identity may acquire (evolve), gaining new attributes from consumer perspective but not necessarily from the marketing communications an owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore, businesses research consumer's brand associations.
Visual brand identity The visual brand identity manual for Mobil Oil (developed by Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv), one of the first visual identities to integrate logotype, icon, alphabet, color palette, and station architecture.
As part of a company's brand identity, a logo should complement the company's message strategy. An effective logo is simple, memorable, and works well in any medium including both online and offline applications.
Color is a particularly important element of visual brand identity and color mapping provides an effective way of ensuring color contributes to differentiation in a visually cluttered marketplace. Brand trust is the intrinsic 'believability' that any entity evokes. In the commercial world, the intangible aspect of brand trust impacts the behavior and performance of its business stakeholders in many intriguing ways. It creates the foundation of a strong brand connect with all stakeholders, cto devoted ambassadors, leading to concomitant advantages like easier acceptability of brand extensions, the perception of premium, and acceptance of temporary quality deficiencies. Brand trust is often used as an important part of developing the portrayal of the business globally. Foreign companies will often use names that are associated with quality, in order to entrust the brand itself. An example would be a Chinese company using a German name. Action of the entity is most important in creating trust in all those audiences who directly engage with the brand, the primary experience carrying primary audiences. However, the tools of communications play a vital role in the transferring the trust experience to audiences which have never experienced the brand, the all-important secondary audience.
Brand parity is the perception of the customers that some brands are equivalent. This means that shoppers will purchase within a group of accepted brands rather than choosing one specific brand. When brand parity operates, quality is often not a major concern because consumers believe that only minor quality differences exist. Today, brands play a much bigger role. The power of brands to communicate a complex message quickly, with emotional impact and with the ability of brands to attract media attention, makes them ideal tools in the hands of activists. Cultural conflict over a brand's meaning has also influences the diffusion of an innovation.
Company name Often, especially in the industrial sector, brand engineers will promote a company's name. Exactly how the company name relates to product and services names forms part of a brand architecture. Decisions about company names and product names and their relationship depend on more than a dozen strategic considerations.
In this case, a strong brand-name (or company name) becomes the vehicle for marketing a range of products (for example, Mercedes-Benz or Black & Decker) or a range of subsidiary brands (such as Cadbury Dairy Milk, Cadbury Flake, or Cadbury Fingers in the UK).
Corporate name-changes offer particularly stark examples of branding-related decisions. A name change may signal different ownership or new product directions. and the newly-named International Business Machines represented a broadening of scope in 1924 from its original name, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. A change in corporate naming may also have a role in seeking to shed an undesirable image: for example, Werner Erhard and Associates re-branded its activities as Landmark Education in 1991 at a time when publicity in a 60 Minutes investigative-report
Individual branding Each brand has a separate name (such as Seven-Up, Kool-Aid, or Nivea Sun (Beiersdorf)), which may compete against other brands from the same company (for example, Persil, Omo, Surf, and Lynx are all owned by Unilever).
Multiproduct branding strategy
Multiproduct branding strategy is when a company uses one name across all their products in a product class. When the company's trade name is used, multiproduct branding is also known as corporate branding, family branding or umbrella branding. Examples of companies that use corporate branding are Microsoft, Samsung, Apple, and Sony as the company's brand name is identical to their trade name.
Other examples of multiproduct branding strategy include Virgin and Church & Dwight. Virgin, a multination conglomerate uses the punk inspired, handwritten red logo with the iconic tick for all its products ranging from airlines, hot air balloons, telecommunication to healthcare. Church & Dwight, a manufacturer of household products displays the Arm & Hammer family brand name for all its products containing baking s
Brand extension is the system of employing a current brand name to enter a different product class. Having a strong brand equity allows for brand extension. Nevertheless, brand extension has its disadvantages. There is a risk that too many uses for one brand name can oversaturate the market resulting in a blurred and weak brand for consumers. Examples of brand extension can be seen through Kimberly-Clark and Honda. Kimberly-Clark is a corporation that produces personal and health care products being able to extend the Huggies brand name across a full line of toiletries for toddlers and babies. The success of this brand extension strategy is apparent in the $500 million in annual sales generated globally. Similarly, Honda using their reputable name for automobiles has spread to other products such as motorcycles, power equipment, engines, robots, aircraft, and bikes.
Co-branding is a variation of brand extension. It is where a single product is created from the combining of two brand names of two manufacturers. Co-branding has its advantages as it lets firms enter new product classes and exploit a recognized brand name in that product class. An example of a co-branding success is Whitaker's working with Lewis Road Creamery to create a co-branded beverage called Lewis Road Creamery and Whittaker's Chocolate Milk. This product was a huge success in the New Zealand market with it going viral.
Multibranding strategy is when a company gives each product a distinct name. Multibranding is best used as an approach when each brand in intended for a different market segment. Multibranding is used in an assortment of ways with selected companies grouping their brands based on price-quality segments. Procter & Gamble (P&G), a multinational consumer goods company that offers over 100 brands, each suited for different consumer needs. For instance, Head & Shoulders that helps consumers relieve dandruff in the form of a shampoo, Oral-B which offers inter-dental products, Vicks which offers cough and cold products, and Downy which offers dryer sheets and fabric softeners. Other examples include Coca-Cola, Nestlé, Kellogg's, and Mars.
This approach usually results in higher promotion costs and advertising. This is due to the company being required to generate awareness among consumers and retailers for each new brand name without the benefit of any previous impressions. Multibranding strategy has many advantages. There is no risk that a product failure will affect other products in the line as each brand is unique to each market segment. Although, certain large multiband companies have come across that the cost and difficulty of implementing a multibranding strategy can overshadow the benefits. For example, Unilever, the world's third-largest multination consumer goods company recently streamlined its brands from over 400 brands to centre their attention onto 14 brands with sales of over 1 billion euros. Unilever accomplished this through product deletion and sales to other companies. Other multibrand companies introduce new product brands as a protective measure to respond to competition called fighting brands or fighter brands.
The main purpose of fighting brands is to challenge competitor brands. For example, Qantas, Australia's largest flag carrier airline, introduced Jetstar to go head-to-head against the low-cost carrier, Virgin Australia (formerly known as Virgin Blue).
is an Australian low-cost airline for budget conscious travellers, but it receives many negative reviews due to this. The launching of Jetstar allowed Qantas to rival Virgin Australia without the criticism being affiliated with Qantas because of the distinct brand name.
Private branding strategy
Private branding (also known as reseller branding, private labelling, store brands, or own brands) have increased in popularity. Private branding is when a company manufactures products but it is sold under the brand name of a wholesaler or retailer. Private branding is popular because it typically produces high profits for manufacturers and resellers. The pricing of private brand product are usually cheaper compared to competing name brands. Consumers are commonly deterred by these prices as it sets a perception of lower quality and standard but these views are shifting.
In Australia, their leading supermarket chains, both Woolworths and Coles are saturated with store brands (or private labels). For example, in the United States, Paragon Trade Brands, Ralcorp Holdings, and Rayovac are major suppliers of diapers, grocery products, and private label alkaline batteries, correspondingly. Costco, Walmart, RadioShack, Sears, and Kroger are large retailers that have their own brand names. Similarly, Macy's,
The launch of Venus was conducted in order to fulfil the feminine market of the previously dominating masculine razor industry. Similarly, Toyota, an automobile manufacturer used mixed branding. In the U.S., Toyota was regarded as a valuable car brand being economical, family orientated and known as a vehicle that rarely broke down. But Toyota sought out to fulfil a higher end, expensive market segment, thus they created Lexus, the luxury vehicle division of premium cars.
Attitude branding and iconic brands
Attitude branding is the choice to represent a larger feeling, which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the product at all. Marketing labeled as attitude branding include that of Nike, Starbucks, The Body Shop, Safeway, and Apple Inc.. In the 1999 book No Logo, Naomi Klein describes attitude branding as a "fetish strategy". Schaefer and Kuehlwein analyzed brands such as Apple, Ben & Jerry's or Chanel describing them as 'Ueber-Brands' - brands that are able to gain and retain "meaning beyond the material." A great brand raises the bar – it adds a greater sense of purpose to the experience, whether it's the challenge to do your best in sports and fitness, or the affirmation that the cup of coffee you're drinking really matters. – Howard Schultz (President, CEO, and Chairman of Starbucks)
The color, letter font and style of the Coca-Cola and Diet Coca-Cola logos in English were copied into matching Hebrew logos to maintain brand identity in Israel.
Iconic brands are defined as having aspects that contribute to consumer's self-expression and personal identity. Brands whose value to consumers comes primarily from having identity value are said to be "identity brands". Some of these brands have such a strong identity that they become more or less cultural icons which makes them "iconic brands". Examples are: Apple, Nike, and Harley-Davidson. Many iconic brands include almost ritual-like behaviour in purchasing or consuming the products.
- "From Myth To Meaning" – Leveraging the power of myth – 'Ueber-Stories' that have fascinated- and guided humans forever.
- "Behold!" – Making product and associated brand rituals reflect the essence of the brand mission and myth. Making it the center of attention, while keeping it fresh.
- "Living the Dream" – Living the brand mission as an organization and through its actions. Thus radiating the brand myth from the inside out, consistently and through all brand manifestations. – For "Nothing is as volatile than a dream."
Brand extension and brand dilution
Further information: brand extension
The existing strong brand name can be used as a vehicle for new or modified products; for example, many fashion and designer companies extended brands into fragrances, shoes and accessories, home textile, home decor, luggage, (sun-) glasses, furniture, hotels, etc.
Mars extended its brand to ice cream, Caterpillar to shoes and watches, Michelin to a restaurant guide, Adidas and Puma to personal hygiene. Dunlop extended its brand from tires to other rubber products such as shoes, golf balls, tennis racquets, and adhesives. Frequently, the product is no different from what else is on the market, except a brand name marking. Brand is product identity.
There is a difference between brand extension and line extension. A line extension is when a current brand name is used to enter a new market segment in the existing product class, with new varieties or flavors or sizes. When Coca-Cola launched "Diet Coke" and "Cherry Coke",
they stayed within the originating product category: non-alcoholic carbonated beverages. Procter & Gamble (P&G) did likewise extending its strong lines (such as Fairy Soap) into neighboring products (Fairy Liquid and Fairy Automatic) within the same category, dish washing detergents.
The risk of over-extension is brand dilution where the brand loses its brand associations with a market segment, product area, or quality, price or cachet.
Social media brands
Product line extension
Product line extension is the procedure of entering a new market segment in its product class by means of using a current brand name. An example of this is the Campbell Soup Company, primarily a producer of canned soups. They utilize a multiproduct branding strategy by way of soup line extensions. They have over 100 soup flavours putting forward varieties such as regular Campbell soup, condensed, chunky, fresh-brewed, organic, and soup on the go. This approach is seen as favourable as it can result in a lower promotion costs and advertising due to the same name being used on all products, therefore increasing the level of brand awareness. Although, line extension has potential negative outcomes with one being that other items in the company's line may be disadvantaged because of the sale of the extension. Line extensions work at their best when they deliver an increase in company revenue by enticing new buyers or by removing sales from competitors.
Subbranding is used by certain multiproduct branding companies. Subbranding merges a corporate, family or umbrella brand with the introduction of a new brand in order to differentiate part of a product line from others in the whole brand system. Subbranding assists to articulate and construct offerings. It can alter a brand's identity as subbranding can modify associations of the parent brand. Examples of successful subbranding can be seen through Gatorade and Porsche. Gatorade, a manufacturer of sport-themed food and beverages effectively introduced Gatorade G2, a low-calorie line of Gatorade drinks. Likewise, Porsche, a specialised automobile manufacturer successfully markets its lower-end line, Porsche Boxster and higher-end line, Porsche Carrera.
In The Better Mousetrap: Brand Invention in a Media Democracy (2012), author and brand strategist Simon Pont posits that social media brands may be the most evolved version of the brand form, because they focus not on themselves but on their users. In so doing, social media brands are arguably more charismatic, in that consumers are compelled to spend time with them, because the time spent is in the meeting of fundamental human drivers related to belonging and individualism. "We wear our physical brands like badges, to help define us – but we use our digital brands to help express who we are. They allow us to be, to hold a mirror up to ourselves, and it is clear. We like what we see."natively, in a market that is fragmented amongst a number of brands a supplier can choose deliberately to launch totally new brands in apparent competition with its own existing strong brand (and often with identical product characteristics); simply to soak up some of the share of the market which will in any case go to minor brands.
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Game has a reward card scheme for which every pound spent a customer is rewarded 10 points; for every 1000 points that one collects, one gets £2.50 to redeem in the store, or online. scheme in Europe. Customers earn points on each bet which can be redeemed for bonus jokers and free bets. Ladbrokes Poker operates a loyalty program for its online poker players where players are able to exchange their poker points for gift & prizes. Maximiles is an online coalition program claiming 1.6 million members in the UK. Maximiles also operates online programs in France, Spain and Italy. The opening of the first Best Buy store in the UK—at Thurrock, Essex, in 2010—was accompanied by the launch of a customer engagement program called My Best Buy. This was described as “a tiered, digital loyalty and customer engagement program that is designed to build a lifelong relationship with the customer by providing a personalized experience through which they can manage their digital and technology needs.” However, this business ceased trading in 2012: the 11 stores were closed in January, and My Best Buy closed on February 29. The Ice Organisation launched MyIce.com in 2010, a scheme which rewards consumers for shopping in a more sustainable way. Ice’s mission is to promote greener goods and services to mitigate climate change, and works with national and local retailers to encourage more local, sustainable consumerism.to the total spend with the businesses during the previous year. Such dividend schemes have existed since the Rochdale Pioneers of the 1840s. Paper record-keeping transformed in the 1960s into a trading stampscheme managed by the Co-operative Wholesale Society (CWS), which was gradually withdrawn as margins declined. The loyalty card concept was used by some co-operatives to restore dividend payments at the turn of the 21st century, notably by the CWS’s “Dividend” card, which was replaced by The Co-operative Membership card program. The current members’ dividend scheme is provided using the national co-operative brand and allows members of The Co-operative Group and many of the larger regional co-operative societies to earn their ‘share of the profits’ based upon their spend at many of the outlets which use The Co-operative brand rather than just at their own co-operative society (e.g.
The Co-operative Group or the Midcounties caused controversy as members were now required to pay taxes and fees on flights they used for redemption. The scheme became more flexible and included redemption opportunities such as car hire and days out, broadening the ways in which members can spend their points. North America (USA / Canada and now Mexico) Canada
The oldest loyalty program in Canada is Canadian Tire money,
in which the Canadian Tire company gives out coupons which look like currency. Air Miles is Canada’s largest loyalty program – Air Miles can be earned at more than 100 different sponsors and almost a thousand different rewards. Groupe Aeroplan Inc.). Example of companies that run their own programs include HBC Rewards, which began at Zellers in 1986 as Club Z; the PC Optimum program for free groceries (from Loblaws), The Body Shop’s Love Your Body Card, Staples Business Depot’s easyRewards Savings Card (formerly Dividends) and Sobeys’ Club Sobeys card. The plum rewards program is Canada’s largest loyalty program for reading enthusiasts, offering everyday discounts and special coupons at Chapters, Indigo Books and Music, Coles, SmithBooks, and chapters.indigo.ca. PetPerks is PetSmart’s reward program where members get a pre determined discount on any item in the store that displays a PetPerks tag under the regular price tag. Vicinity is loyalty platform for small business retailers that was launched in May 2013 by Rogers Communications Inc. For example, Air Miles at Shell gas stations, PC Plus at Esso and Mobil, Petro Points and More Rewards at Petro-Canada, Canadian Tire money at Canadian Tire gas stations, or a coupon that grants the customer 3.5 cents off per litre of fuel purchased at Sobeys Fast Fuel locations that can be used at a Sobeys banner store. United States In the USA, several major retail chains, movie theatre networks, supermarket and fish market chains, and the three major pharmacy chains require the cards in order for customers to receive the advertised loyalty price. They include (each through both its own name and its related regional chains), AMC Theatres,
Best Buy, Circle K, County Market, CVS/pharmacy, Giant-Carlisle and its sister chains Giant Eagle and Giant-Landover, Hallmark, Hy-Vee, IKEA, Ingles, JCPenney, Kohl’s, Kroger, Menards, Office Max, Price Chopper, Regal Entertainment Group, Rite Aid, Safeway, Sears (also used by Kmart), ShopRite, Stop & Shop, Target, Tops, Toys “R” Us (also used by Babies “R” Us), Walgreens, Wegmans, and Winn-Dixie. Many retailers allow accumulation of fuel discounts. Some have tie-ins with airline frequent-flyer programs, and some agree to donate a percentage of sales to a designated charity. Walmart fuel stations. The practice is common among book and music retailers, from large chains to independent retailers. In some instances, the customer purchases the card and receives a percentage discount on all purchases for a period of time (often one year), while in other instances, a customer receives a one-time percentage discount upon reaching a specified purchase level. For example, a bookseller’s loyalty card program might provide a customer with a 10% off coupon once the customer has spent US$200 at the bookseller. Best Buy and Searsoffer loyalty programs that offer points redeemable for dollar-amount discounts after accumulating a set number of points along with other discounts from time to time. Independent hardware stores, such as Ace Hardware and True Value,uld normally require completing a mail-in rebate. In addition, office supply retailers Staples and Office Depot
started issuing club cards in 2005: (redeemable for discounts, future stays, or other prizes) and/or airline miles Hilton’s HHonors program allowed guests to earn both points and miles (referenced as double-dipping) on the same stay, the only program to date that did so but which ended April 1, 2018]. All major U.S. airlines also offer rewards credit cards. Other travel related reward programs include SeaMiles, with points that can be redeemed for cruises. Some American retailers have not implemented club cards, including grocery stores ALDI, Publix, and Whole Foods. Between 2007 and 2013 (before their purchase of Safeway), Acme Markets, Albertsons, Jewel-Osco, and Shaw’s (all owned by Albertsons LLC) eliminated their loyalty cards in favor of discounts for all shoppers. Few states regulate club cards. As an example, supermarkets in California are subject to the Supermarket Club Card Disclosure Act of 1999. Prominent online loyalty programs include Belly,
FatWallet, Fivestars, Memolink, MonaBar, Mypoints, Perka, and Swagbucks. Some online loyalty programs focus on “other-directed” consumers including iGive.com, Schoolpop, The BSP Rewards Network, and Upromise. Cardmobili, Foursquare, and Shopkick focus on using smartphones such as the Android and iPhone. Since March 2011, Foursquare has partnered with American Express to provide Foursquare points when using an American Express card, and since November 21, 2011, Shopkick has partnered with Visa to provide Shopkick points when using a Visa card at locations such as Best Buy, Old Navy, or Toys “R” Us. MEXICO Mexico is becoming a huge online shopping e-commerce environment as residents are now finally trusting the use of Amazon as a platform to process their credit card payments and orders effectively. Other marketplaces like Facebook, Bonanza are making strides in ecommerce. The growth should be dynamic the next 7 years for online shopping in Mexico especially in Mexico City. Oceania: Australia Many loyalty programs operate in Australia, ranging from retail chains, individual stores, hotels, car hire businesses, credit card schemes, besides others. The largest loyalty program is flybuys, established in 1994 and owned by Coles. It has more than 10 million cardholders in over 5.5 million Australian households. A consumer study of Australian loyalty programs in 2013 showed flybuys as easily the most popular program in Australia. Rival retailer Woolworths launched its Everyday Rewards fuel discount card nationally in 2009 and by August 2010 had 5.1 million cardholders, with 2.7 million linked to the Qantas Frequent Flyer program. Among other Australian retailers, the largest programs are Myer’s MYER one program, the Priceline Club Card, Amcal Club, Millers Retail Club, and the BB Retail Capital Pulse Rewards program. Pulse has more than a million members. All major Australian banks offer credit cards with reward programs. Many are linked directly to airline rewards programs such as the Qantas Frequent Flyer program or Virgin Australia’s Velocity Frequent Flyer program. Alternatively, some banks and credit card companies have their own programs, with points being either redeemable or transferable to various airline rewards programs. Countdownsupermarket’s Onecard. Kachingo was a short-lived “card free” programme. Mobile Loyalty Programs Mobile online loyalty are emulated in a smartphone. Google Wallet adopted these technologies for mobile off-line payment application. ...........